Plate 5: Normal Tympanic Membrane (AD), Adult (membrana tympani):
The color is a dull bluish gray. The landmarks are the long process of the malleus (hammer handle), which terminates about the center of the drum. From this point, called the umbo, a cone of light is seen reflected forward and downward toward the annulus tympanicus. At the upper limit of the hammer handle the short process of the malleus is visible as a teat-like projection. From this point the anterior and posterior folds project laterally and divide the drum into the pars tensa below and the pars flaccida or Shrapnell's membrane, above.